Published Research

Below is a list of some of the research published this year that focus on eosinophil associated diseases. This is not an exhaustive list by any means, however, many of the key journals are included.

Eosinophilic Asthma

Predictive value of blood eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide in adults with mild asthma: a prespecified subgroup analysis of an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial
Pavord ID, Holliday M, Reddel HK, et al; on behalf of the Novel START Study Team. [published online March 11, 2020]. Lancet Respir Med. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30053-9

The investigators of this study concluded that the results are in line with consistent evidence demonstrating that in patients with more severe asthma, blood eosinophil counts are an independent prognostic marker of risk for disease exacerbations and a predictive biomarker of a patient’s response to inhaled corticosteroids.

In patients with severe asthma with eosinophilia in reslizumab clinical trials, high peripheral blood eosinophil levels are associated with low FEV1 reversibility.
Virchow, J.C., Hickey, L., Du, E. et al. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 16, 26 (2020).

Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

Oral corticosteroid-sparing effects of reslizumab in the treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Brian D. Kent, Grainne d’Ancona, Mariana Fernandes, Linda Green, Cris Roxas, Louise Thomson, Alexandra M. Nanzer, Joanne Kavanagh, Sangita Agarwal, David J. Jackson ERJ Open Research 2020 6: 00311-2019; DOI: 10.1183/23120541.00311-2019.

A study published in European Respiratory Society Open Research reports the oral corticosteroid-sparing results of patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA, aka Churg-Strauss Syndrome) who were treated with intravenous reslizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody against human interleukin-5 (IL-5).

Pharmacogenetic investigation of efficacy response to mepolizumab in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Condreay LD, Parham LR, Qu XA, Steinfeld J, Wechsler ME, Raby BA, Yancey SW, Ghosh S. Rheumatol Int. 2020 Feb 3. doi: 10.1007/s00296-020-04523-6.

This publication describes the treatment of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) with a targeted therapy called mepolizumab, a monoclonal antibody to interleukin-5 (IL-5). They found that in the patients dosed with mepolizumab, as an add-on therapy to treatment with glucocorticoids, had reduced eosinophil counts in the blood, longer remission periods and reduced relapse rates, and reduced steroid usage.

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: the multifaceted spectrum of clinical manifestations at different stages of the disease.
Berti A, Boukhlal S, Groh M, Cornec D. 2020 Jan;16(1):51-61. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2019.1697678. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

The authors of this paper reviewed the clinical presentation of EGPA, focusing on specific stages of the disease, such as before overt vasculitis develops, when vasculitis is diagnosed, and during long-term follow up.

“Asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and blood eosinophilia could anticipate the overt vasculitis for years,” the authors noted in the abstract. “An atopic background may be present in a subset of patients (25-30%), while ANCA presence varies between 10 and 40%. Systemic vasculitis rapidly occurs and clinical features demonstrating vasculitis processes.(neuropathy, purpura, scleritis, alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis) develop along with systemic symptoms (50%).”

The authors also indicated that for up to 50% of patients, asthma remains severe after vasculitis resolves and there is a high incidence of isolated-asthma and rhinosinus exacerbations. “Interleukin-5 blockers seem to be promising to control the disease and to spare corticosteroids,” they further noted.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Psychiatric Comorbidities and Psychiatric Medication Use Are Highly Prevalent in Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Associate With Clinical Presentation

Reed, Craig C. MD, MSCR1 Corder, S. Ryanne BS Kim, Erin BS, Sanders, Emily MD, Tappata, Manaswita BS, Eluri, Swathi MD, MSCR; Dellon, Evan S. MD, MPH

Researchers aiming to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disease and treatment in people who have EoE report their findings from a cohort of children and adults who have the condition. “Psychiatric comorbidities were common in EoE, seen in a third of adults and more than 1 in 7 children, and with similar proportions receiving a prescription medication,” the authors report. “These illnesses affected the EoE presentation because psychiatric comorbidities were more likely in older, female, and white patients with a longer duration of symptoms preceding diagnosis.”

Long-term Efficacy and Tolerability of RPC4046 in an Open-Label Extension Trial of Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Dellon ES, Collins MH, Rothenberg ME, Assouline-Dayan Y, Evans L, Gupta S, Schoepfer A, Straumann A, Safroneeva E, Rodriguez C, Minton N, Hua SY, Hirano I. 12 March 2020. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

A recent publication in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology features a paper describing investigation of long-term efficacy and safety of RPC4046, a monoclonal antibody that targets interleukin-13, in adults with EoE. “One year treatment with RPC4046 is generally well tolerated and results in continued improvement and/or maintenance of endoscopic, histologic, and clinical measures of EoE disease activity relative to baseline,” the researchers concluded.

Randomised clinical trial: the safety and tolerability of fluticasone propionate orally disintegrating tablets versus placebo for eosinophilic oesophagitis
Hirano I, Safroneeva E, Roumet MC, Comer GM, Eagle G, Schoepfer A, Falk GW. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Apr;51(8):750-759. doi: 10.1111/apt.15670. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

In a recent publication in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, researchers share their findings of an 8-week multicenter study in the U.S. involving adults and adolescents with EoE to assess the safety and tolerance of APT-1011, an orally disintegrating tablet formulation of fluticasone. Researchers observed improvements in histologic and endoscopic findings, as well symptoms were observed. The full paper can be accessed online.

Emerging therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis
J Allergy Clin Immunol. January 2020 Volume 145, Issue 1, Pages 38–45

This article published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology discusses recent advances in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), specifically swallowed topical steroids, biological agents, dietary approaches, and novel molecular targets. It concludes that newer formulations of swallowed topical corticosteroids have appeared to be highly effective in short- and long-term EoE management of EoE. Dietary approaches have shown a similar effectiveness; however, new approaches, such as the 2-4-6-food elimination diet (step-up approach) are similarly effective to empiric food elimination but also more efficient.

For patients who do not achieve/maintain long-term remission with steroid formulations and dietary restrictions, biological agents may be an effective treatment alternative, with anti–IL-13 and anti–IL-4 receptor antibodies thus far offering promising results in phase 2 clinical trials. The article also highlights newer targets now being tested in clinical trials, including the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (losartan) or Siglec-8 (anti–Siglec-8).

This paper reflects the work of the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). APFED works in concert with CEGIR to ensure the patient perspective is included in all aspects of its work. Donations to APFED enable us to provide supplemental funding to CEGIR to ensure the success of the consortium.

Diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis
J Allergy Clin Immunol. January 2020 Volume 145, Issue 1, Pages 1–7

This review from the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology highlights the most recent diagnostic criteria and disease management for adult and pediatric EoE patients. Current consensus diagnostic criteria describes EoE as “a chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilic histologic inflammation.” The review concludes that when untreated, EoE can lead to esophageal remodeling and strictures; therefore, maintenance therapy is advised. The review also concludes that both dietary and medical therapy for EoE can help “reduce histologic inflammation, improve clinical symptoms and endoscopic abnormalities, and improve remodeling in a subset of patients.”

The review also notes the need for better ways to identify food triggers in patients with EoE, the need to identify clinical or genetic predictors of response to treat or slow progression of the disease, and the importance of identifying effective maintenance therapies.

This paper reflects the work of the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). APFED works in concert with CEGIR to ensure the patient perspective is included in all aspects of its work. Donations to APFED enable us to provide supplemental funding to CEGIR to ensure the success of the consortium.

Efficacy of Dupilumab in a Phase 2 Randomized Trial of Adults With Active Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Hirano I, Dellon ES, et al. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jan;158(1):111-122.e10.

An article published in the January 2020 issue of Gastroenterology describes the results of a phase 2 trial of adults with active EoE and their response to dupliumab. Dupilumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. This targeted therapy effectively treats allergic, atopic, and type 2 diseases and the efficacy and safety of this therapy to treat patients with EoE is being assessed.

Patients in the trial received weekly subcutaneous injections of dupilumab for 12 weeks. The study authors concluded that dupilumab “reduced dysphagia, histologic features of disease (including eosinophilic infiltration and a marker of type 2 inflammation), and abnormal endoscopic features compared with placebo. Dupilumab increased esophageal distensibility and was generally well tolerated.” 

Eosinophilic Colitis, Eosinophilic Gastritis, Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

Molecular, endoscopic, histologic, and circulating biomarker-based diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis: Multi-site study
J Allergy Clin Immunol. Jan. 2020 Volume 145, Issue 1, Pages 255–269

This paper describes new testing platforms for blood and tissue that may help guide clinicians to a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis (EG) in the future. Currently, there are no consensus guidelines to standardize diagnostic criteria for EG. This is in large part due to EG being a rare condition, which makes it challenging to study, and also because it is common for people who have EG to also have another subset of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease. The samples analyzed by the CEGIR investigators enabled them to develop a molecular profile that correlated with findings from endoscopy and histology. Levels of eotaxin-3 in the blood were strongly associated with expression of gastric cytokine CCL26. Additional studies are needed to validate these findings before these new testing platforms could be considered for clinical use.

This paper reflects the work of the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). APFED works in concert with CEGIR to ensure the patient perspective is included in all aspects of its work. Donations to APFED enable us to provide supplemental funding to CEGIR to ensure the success of the consortium.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease below the belt
J Allergy Clin Immunol. January 2020 Volume 145, Issue 1, Pages 87–89

This article from the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology reviews the current state of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) with a focus on “unmet needs, barriers, and future directions in patients with nonesophageal EGIDs.” While eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has been the subject of much focus and advancement, EGIDs that affect other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, including eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC), are poorly understood by comparison and there are no well-established guidelines for diagnosis or management.

The article concludes that: 1. Clear diagnostic criteria for EG, EGE, and EC must be established; 2. outcome measures, such as patient-reported outcomes and endoscopic and histologic assessments, need to be developed; 3. More work is required to understand pathogenesis; and 4. Longitudinal trials are needed to better understand disease mechanisms and long-term outcomes.

This paper reflects the work of the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). APFED works in concert with CEGIR to ensure the patient perspective is included in all aspects of its work. Donations to APFED enable us to provide supplemental funding to CEGIR to ensure the success of the consortium.

Hypereosinophilic Syndromes

Single-organ and Multisystem hypereosinophilic syndrome patients with gastrointestinal manifestations share common characteristics

Kuang, FL; Curtin, BF; Alao H; Klion AD; Kumar S; Khoury P; et al.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice; April 25, 2020DOI:

Researchers set out to describe the gastrointestinal disease of patients who were categorized as having hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) overlap. Their research found that patients with Multisystem HES may experience isolated gastrointestinal symptoms before developing symptoms in other organs. “There are striking clinical similarities between Multisystem HES and HES/EGID overlap patients, despite differing treatment approaches,” the authors concluded.
“Moreover, Multisystem HES can present with isolated GI involvement. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.”

The Diagnostic Work-Up of Hypereosinophilia
Wang S.A.
Pathobiology 2019;86:39–52

Excerpt from abstract: “Hypereosinophilia (HE) is defined as a persistent elevated eosinophil count of ≥1.5 × 109/L. HE can be one of the dominant manifestations of a hematopoietic myeloid neoplasm or secondary/reactive to an underlying medical condition. If a cause of HE and its associated tissue/organ damage is not determined, the condition is considered to be idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). The work-up of HE can be challenging due to a broad range of causes of HE that can be either reactive or neoplastic.”

Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of High-Dose Mepolizumab Treatment for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
Fei Li Kuang, et. al.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. Sep-Oct 2018;6(5):1518-1527.e5.

Excerpt from Conclusion: “This study confirms that mepolizumab is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for HES, but suggests that response is more likely in GC-responsive subjects with idiopathic or overlap forms of HES. A primary benefit of treatment is the reduction of comorbidity due to discontinuation or the reduction of conventional HES therapies. Although subjects who completely discontinued GC had the most benefit, high-dose mepolizumab was a safe and effective salvage therapy for severe, treatment-refractory HES.”

Other Publications of Interest

Advancing patient care through the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR)
J Allergy Clin Immunol. Jan. 2020 Volume 145, Issue 1, Pages 28-37.

In this rostum, investigators from CEGIR outline the progress and direction of the consortium and the multidisciplinary relationships and engagement with patient advocacy groups like APFED, the National Institutes of Health and partners from industry and academia. The article outlines CEGIRs work with eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, including natural history studies to promote clinical trial readiness tools, clinical trials, investigator training program, and innovative pilot studies.

This paper reflects the work of the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR). APFED works in concert with CEGIR to ensure the patient perspective is included in all aspects of its work. Donations to APFED enable us to provide supplemental funding to CEGIR to ensure the success of the consortium.

Older Publications

Eosinophilic Colitis

Classification of eosinophilic disorders of the small and large intestine. McCarthy AJ, Sheahan K. Virchows Arch. 2017 Nov 10. doi: 10.1007/s00428-017-2249-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis and Colitis in a Population-Based Study, From 2012 to 2017. Mansoor E, Saleh MA, Cooper GS. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Nov;15(11):1733-1741. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.05.050. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Eosinophilic Colitis-"Not as rare". Mamachen A, Al-Hanayneh M, Bilal M, Merwat S, Hashmi A. Dig Liver Dis. 2017 Jul;49(7):826-828. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2017.04.014. Epub 2017 Apr 27. No abstract available.

The pathology and causes of tissue eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract. Conner JR, Kirsch R. Histopathology. 2017 Aug;71(2):177-199. doi: 10.1111/his.13228. Epub 2017 May 26. Review.
Intraepithelial Lymphocyte Eotaxin-2 Expression and Perineural Mast Cell Degranulation Differentiate Allergic/Eosinophilic Colitis From Classic IBD
. Torrente F, Barabino A, Bellini T, Murch SH. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 May 7. [Epub ahead of print

Eosinophilic colitis is a sporadic self limited disease of middle aged people: a population-based study. Alfadda AA, Shaffer EA, Urbanski SJ, Storr MA. Colorectal Dis. 2013 Oct 19. doi: 10.1111/codi.12464. [Epub ahead of print]


Eosinophilic Cystitis

How should eosinophilic cystitis be treated in patients with chronic granulomatous disease? Claps A, Della Corte M, Gerocarni Nappo S, Francalanci P, Palma P, Finocchi A. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Jul 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Eosinophilic cystitis: treatment with intravesical steroids and oral antihistamines. Zaman SR, Vermeulen TL, Parry J. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Sep 6;2013. pii: bcr2013009327. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-009327.


Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Steroids versus dietary therapy for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis. Gonsalves N. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul;30(4):396-401. ​doi: 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000086.

Genome-wide association analysis of eosinophilic esophagitis provides insight into the tissue specificity of this allergic disease. Kottyan LC, Davis BP, Sherrill JD, Liu K, Rochman M, Kaufman K, Weirauch MT, Vaughn S, Lazaro S, Rupert AM, Kohram M, Stucke EM, Kemme KA, Magnusen A, He H, Dexheimer P, Chehade M, Wood RA, Pesek RD, Vickery BP, Fleischer DM, Lindbad R, Sampson HA, Mukkada VA, Putnam PE, Abonia JP, Martin LJ, Harley JB, Rothenberg ME. Nat Genet. 2014 Aug;46(8):895-900. doi: 10.1038/ng.3033. Epub 2014 Jul 13.

Accuracy, Safety, and Tolerability of Tissue Collection by Cytosponge vs Endoscopy for Evaluation of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Katzka DA, Geno DM, Ravi A, Smyrk TC, Lao-Sirieix P, Miramedi A, Debiram I, O'Donovan M, Kita H, Kephart GM, Kryzer LA, Camilleri M, Alexander JA, Fitzgerald RC. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jul 2. pii: S1542-3565(14)00933-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2014.06.026. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk factors for eosinophilic esophagitis. Philpott H, Nandurkar S, Royce SG, Thien F, Gibson PR. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Aug;44(8):1012-9. doi: 10.1111/cea.12363.

Prevalence of esophageal motility abnormalities increases with longer disease duration in adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. van Rhijn BD, Oors JM, Smout AJ, Bredenoord AJ. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Jul 14. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12400. [Epub ahead of print]

Analysis and expansion of the eosinophilic esophagitis transcriptome by RNA sequencing. ​Sherrill JD, Kiran KC, Blanchard C, Stucke EM, Kemme KA, Collins MH, Abonia JP, Putnam PE, Mukkada VA, Kaul A, Kocoshis SA, Kushner JP, Plassard AJ, Karns RA, Dexheimer PJ, Aronow BJ, Rothenberg ME. Genes Immun. 2014 Jun 12. doi: 10.1038/gene.2014.27. [Epub ahead of print]

Efficacy and Safety of Oral Budesonide Suspension in Pediatric Patients With Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Gupta SK, Vitanza JM, Collins MH. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jun 4. pii: S1542-3565(14)00804-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2014.05.021. [Epub ahead of print]

Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults Is Associated With IgG4 and Not Mediated by IgE. Clayton F, Fang JC, Gleich GJ, Lucendo AJ, Olalla JM, Vinson LA, Lowichik A, Chen X, Emerson L, Cox K, O'Gorman MA, Peterson KA. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jun 4. pii: S0016-5085(14)00725-2. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.036. [Epub ahead of print]

Swallowed topical corticosteroids reduce the risk for long-lasting bolus impactions in eosinophilic esophagitis. Kuchen T, Straumann A, Safroneeva E, Romero Y, Bussmann C, Vavricka S, Netzer P, Reinhard A, Portmann S, Schoepfer AM.


Tethered confocal endomicroscopy capsule for diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis. Tabatabaei N, Kang D, Wu T, Kim M, Carruth RW, Leung J, Sauk JS, Shreffler W, Yuan Q, Katz A, Nishioka NS, Tearney GJ.Biomed Opt Express. 2013 Dec 13;5(1):197-207. doi: 10.1364/BOE.5.000197. eCollection 2013 Dec 13.


Propofol administration is safe in adult eosinophilic esophagitis patients sensitized to egg, soy, or peanut. Molina-Infante J, Arias A, Vara-Brenes D, Prados-Manzano. Allergy. 2014 Jan 21. doi: 10.1111/all.12360.[Epub ahead of print]

Dietary Elimination Therapy is an Effective Option for Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis.Wolf WA, Jerath MR, Sperry SL, Shaheen NJ, Dellon ES. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jan 16. pii: S1542-3565(14)00052-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.12.034. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparison of clinical features in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis living in an urban and rural environment. Lee YJ, Redd M, Bayman L, Frederickson N, Valestin J, Schey R.Dis Esophagus. 2014 Jan 2. doi: 10.1111/dote.12164. [Epub ahead of print]

The outcome of patients with oesophageal eosinophilic infiltration after an eight-week trial of a proton pump inhibitor. Vazquez-Elizondo G, Ngamruengphong S, Khrisna M, Devault KR, Talley NJ, Achem SR. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Nov;38(10):1312-9. doi: 10.1111/apt.12513. Epub 2013 Oct 5.

Clinical and Endoscopic Characteristics do Not Reliably Differentiate PPI-Responsive Esophageal Eosinophilia and Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients Undergoing Upper Endoscopy: A Prospective Cohort Study.Dellon ES, Speck O, Woodward K, Gebhart JH, Madanick RD, Levinson S, Fritchie KJ, Woosley JT, Shaheen NJ. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Oct 22. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.363. [Epub ahead of print]

Causes, evaluation, and consequences of eosinophilic esophagitis. Chehade M, Lucendo AJ, Achem SR, Souza RF. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Oct;1300(1):110-8. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12243.

Food and aeroallergen sensitization in adult eosinophilic esophagitis. Slack MA, Erwin EA, Cho CB, Raveendran R, Phillips G, Ogbogu PU. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Oct;111(4):304-5. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2013.08.003. No abstract available.

Tolerance of baked milk in patients with cow's milk-mediated eosinophilic esophagitis. Leung J, Hundal NV, Katz AJ, Shreffler WG, Yuan Q, Butterworth CA, Hesterberg PE. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Sep 28. doi:pii: S0091-6749(13)01303-1. 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.08.017. [Epub ahead of print].

Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Paradigm Shift for Pathology. Keshishian J, Vrcel V, Boyce HW, Estores D, Serrano J, Richter JE. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Eosinophilic esophagitis in brazilian pediatric patients. Pinheiro MI, de Góes Cavalcanti LP, Honório RS, de Alencar Moreno LH, Fortes MC, da Silva CA. Clin Med Insights Pediatr. 2013 Sep 22;7:41-8. doi: 10.4137/CMPed.S12733.

Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in children with refractory aerodigestive symptoms. Hill CA, Ramakrishna J, Fracchia MS, Sternberg D, Ojha S, Infusino S, Hartnick CJ. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Sep 1;139(9):903-6. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2013.4171.

Diet therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis: when, why and how.(Vashi R, Hirano I.) Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul; 29(4):407-15. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e328362285d.

Development and field testing of a novel patient-reported outcome measure of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. (Dellon ES, Irani AM, Hill MR, Hirano I). Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jul 9. doi: 10.1111/apt.12413. [Epub ahead of print]

Practical management of eosinophilic esophagitis. (Davis CM). Pediatr Ann. 2013 Jul 1;42(7):128-34. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20130619-10.

Eosinophilic esophagitis: a bulk of mysteries.(Straumann A).Swiss EoE Clinic and Swiss EoE Research Group, Olten, Switzerland. Dig Dis. 2013;31(1):6-9. doi: 10.1159/000347095. Epub 2013 Jun 17

Eosinophilic esophagitis treated with immunotherapy to dust mites. (Ramirez RM, Jacobs RL). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jun 10. pii: S0091-6749(13)00753-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.04.053. [Epub ahead of print]

Expanding the paradigm of eosinophilic esophagitis: mast cells and IL-9. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jun;131(6):1583-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.04.010.(Wang YH, Hogan SP, Fulkerson PC,

Abonia JP, Rothenberg MEz0. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jun 10. pii: S0091-6749(13)00753-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.04.053. [Epub ahead of print]

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: an update on medical management. (Prieto R, Richter JE.) Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2013 Jun;15(6):324. doi: 10.1007/s11894-013-0324-6.

Psychosocial Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents with Eosinophilic Esophagitis.(Harris RF, Menard-Katcher C, Atkins D, Furuta GT, Klinnert MD.) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Jun 6. [Epub ahead of print]

The association between celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults (Michael J Stewart,1,2 Eldon Shaffer,1 Stephan J Urbanski,3 Paul L Beck,1 and Martin A Storr) BMC Gastroenterol. 2013; 13: 96. Published online 2013 May 30. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-13-96

Eosinophilic esophagitis: A practical primer for an atypical disease.(Shakouri AA, Ortiz G, Casillas AM.) JAAPA. 2013 May;26(5):54-7.

Anti-IL-5 therapy reduces mast cell and IL-9 cell numbers in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.(Otani IM, Anilkumar AA, Newbury RO, Bhagat M, Beppu LY, Dohil R, Broide DH, Aceves SS.) J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jun;131(6):1576-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.042. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Pathogenic role of mast cells in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis. (Niranjan R, Mavi P, Rayapudi M, Dynda S, Mishra A.) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013 Jun;304(12):G1087-94. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00070.2013. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Clinical analysis of primary eosinophilic esophagitis. (Lee JH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Youn YH, Kim N, Bak YT, Jo Y, Park H.) J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Apr;19(2):204-9. doi: 10.5056/jnm.2013.19.2.204. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of children and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis.(Rodrigues M, D'Amico MF, Patiño FR, Barbieri D, Damião AO, Sipahy AM.) J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013 Mar-Apr;89(2):197-203. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2013.03.001

Incidence and Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.(Soon IS, Butzner JD, Kaplan GG, Debruyn JC.) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Early Life Exposures as Risk Factors For Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Pilot and Feasibility Study.(Jensen ET, Kappelman MD, Kim HP, Ringel-Kulka T, Dellon ES.) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Expression microarray analysis identifies novel epithelial-derived protein markers in eosinophilic esophagitis.(Matoso A) Mod Pathol. 2013 Mar 15. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2013.41. [Epub ahead of print]

The Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults.(Segal D, Chande N.) J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]

PedsQL™ Eosinophilic Esophagitis Module: Feasibility, Reliability and Validity. ( Franciosi JP, Hommel KA, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Mar 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Functional luminal imaging probe topography: an improved method for characterizing esophageal distensibility in eosinophilic esophagitis.(Lin Z, et,al) Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;6 (2):97-107. doi: 10.1177/1756283X12470017.

New diagnostic and therapeutic frontiers in eosinophilic esophagitis.(Gorospe EC, Arora AS.) Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2013 Mar;59(1):59-68.

T Cell Co-Stimulatory Molecules: A Co-conspirator in the Pathogenesis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis? (Zhang Z, Sferra TJ, Eroglu Y.) Dig Dis Sci. 2013 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of proton pump inhibitor on esophageal eosinophilia. (Schroeder S, et al) J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Feb;56(2):166-72. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182716b7a.

Esophageal human β-defensin expression in eosinophilic esophagitis. (Schroeder S, et. al)Pediatr Res.2013 Feb 5. doi: 10.1038/pr.2013.23. [Epub ahead of print]

The role of allergy evaluation in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. (Al-Hussaini A, Al-Idressi E, Al-Zahrani M) J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]


Eosinophilic Fasciitis

Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in patients with eosinophilic fasciitis. Asano Y, Ihn H, Jinnin M, Tamaki Z, Tamaki K, Sato S. J Dermatol. 2014 Jul 16. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.12563.

A57: four prolonged cases of eosinophilic fasciitis in children. Hui-Yuen JS, Lauren C, Garzon M, Starr AJ, Imundo LF. ​Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Mar;66 Suppl 11:S85. doi: 10.1002/art.38473.

Delayed Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A case report and review of the literature. Aydin E, Turan Y, Yildirim C, Tataroğlu C, Cullu E, Sendur OF. Acta Reumatol Port. 2014 Jan 8.

Groove sign in eosinophilic fasciitis. Pinal-Fernandez I, Moraga EL, Tato ML, Simeon-Aznar CP. Lancet. 2014 Jul 17. pii: S0140-6736(14)60526-2. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60526-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Diagnosis and classification of eosinophilic fasciitis. Pinal-Fernandez I, Selva-O'Callaghan A, Grau JM. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Jan 11. pii: S1568-9972(14)00031-7. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous compressibility: a potential adjunctive diagnostic tool in eosinophilic fasciitis. Kissin EY, Garg A, Grayson PC, Dubreuil M, Vradii D, York M, Simms RW. J Clin Rheumatol. 2013 Oct;19(7):382-5. doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000000020.

Eosinophilic fasciitis in siblings. (Sullivan C, Coughlan R.) J Rheumatol. 2013 Jan;40(1):105. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.120936.


Eosinophilic Gastritis

Eosinophilic Gastritis in Children: Clinicopathological Correlation, Disease Course, and Response to Therapy. Ko HM, Morotti RA, Yershov O, Chehade M. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun 24. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.166. [Epub ahead of print]


Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with allergic asthma and atopic eczema. Aktaş B, Coban S, Altinbaş A, Başar O. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(1):192.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and related eosinophilic disorders. Prussin C. ​Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2014 Jun;43(2):317-27. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2014.02.013.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis treated with a multiple-food elimination diet. Yamada Y, Kato M, Isoda Y, Nishi A, Jinbo Y, Hayashi Y. ​Allergol Int. 2014 May;63 Suppl 1:53-6. doi: 10.2332/allergolint.13-LE-0633.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with involvement of the urinary bladder. Zhou HC, Lai C, Yang L. ​Pediatr Radiol. 2014 May 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Limited role of allergy testing in patients with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. (Ishimura N, Furuta K,, J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Mar 11. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12197. [Epub ahead of print]

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: review of a rare and treatable disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Mori A, Enweluzo C, Grier D, Badireddy M. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul 16;7(2):293-8. doi: 10.1159/000354147.


Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss)

A nationwide survey on the epidemiology and clinical features of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) in Japan. Sada KE, Amano K, Uehara R, Yamamura M, Arimura Y, Nakamura Y, Makino H; Research Committee on Intractable Vasculitides, the Ministry of Health, Labour, Welfare of Japan. Mod Rheumatol. 2014 Jul;24(4):640-4. doi: 10.3109/14397595.2013.857582. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Diagnosis and classification of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome). Mouthon L, Dunogue B, Guillevin L. J Autoimmun. 2014 Feb-Mar;48-49:99-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2014.01.018. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

The molecular and functional characterization of clonally expanded CD8+ TCR BV T cells in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Boita M, Guida G, Circosta P, Elia AR, Stella S, Heffler E, Badiu I, Martorana D, Mariani S, Rolla G, Cignetti A. Clin Immunol. 2014 May-Jun;152(1-2):152-63. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Missing the beat: arrhythmia as a presenting feature of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Sharpley FA. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 May 8;2014. pii: bcr2013203413. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-203413.

ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative phenotypes of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA): outcome and long-term follow-up of 50 patients from a single Polish center. ​ Sokolowska BM, Szczeklik WK, Wludarczyk AA, Kuczia PP, Jakiela BA, Gasior JA, Bartyzel SR, Rewerski PA, Musial J. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014 May-Jun;32(3 Suppl 82):S41-7. Epub 2014 May 16.

Is there a role for imatinib mesylate in the treatment of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis? Erre GL, Pardini S, Cuccuru L, Taras L, Passiu G. Joint Bone Spine. 2014 Jul 21. pii: S1297-319X(14)00152-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2014.06.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Cardiac tamponade leading to the diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome): a case report and review of the literature. Yano T, Ishimura S, Furukawa T, Koyama M, Tanaka M, Shimoshige S, Hashimoto A, Miura T. ​Heart Vessels. 2014 Jul 29.

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss): evolutions in classification, etiopathogenesis, assessment and management. Mahr A, Moosig F, Neumann T, Szczeklik W, Taillé C, Vaglio A, Zwerina J. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2014 Jan;26(1):16-23. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000015.

Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome): a case report and review of the literature. Padovano I, Pazzola G, Pipitone N, Cimino L, Salvarani C. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013 Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Can ANCA differentiate eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) from idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome? Zwerina J, Strehl J, Beyer C, Schett G. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013 Oct 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Rituximab in the treatment of refractory or relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Thiel J, Hässler F, Salzer U, Voll RE, Venhoff N. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013 Sep 24;15(5):R133. doi: 10.1186/ar4313.


Eosinophilic Pneumonia

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia following secondhand cigarette smoke exposure. Chung MK, Lee SJ, Kim MY, Lee JH, Chang JH, Sim SS, Ryu YJ. Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul). 2014 Apr;76(4):188-91. doi: 10.4046/trd.2014.76.4.188. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study. Park JY, Lee T, Lee H, Lee YJ, Park JS, Cho YJ, Yoon HI, Lee JH, Lee CT. BMC Pulm Med. 2014 May 12;14:81. doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-14-81.

Clinical implications of initial peripheral eosinophilia in acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Jhun BW, Kim SJ, Kim K, Lee JE. Respirology. 2014 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/resp.12342. [Epub ahead of print]

Elevated concentrations of CCR7 ligands in patients with eosinophilic pneumonia. Nureki S, Miyazaki E, Ishi T, Ito T, Takenaka R, Ando M, Kumamoto T. Allergy. 2013 Sep 21. doi: 10.1111/all.12243. [Epub ahead of print]

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia occurring in a dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficient patient. Tsuge I, Ito K, Ohye T, Kando N, Kondo Y, Nakajima Y, Inuo C, Kurahashi H, Urisu A. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013 Sep 18. doi: 10.1002/ppul.22814. [Epub ahead of print]